ICICIS 2019:Editor's Preface


Business Information Security and Digital Transformation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution


Kennedy Njenga, Department of Applied Information Systems,  University of Johannesburg, South Africa knjenga@uj.ac.za




The twenty-first century has witnessed a shift from a predominantly knowledge-based society, characterized by disruptive digital transformation to one that now unlocks cross-sectoral development that applies the Internet of things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), machine learning and cloud computing, with emergent technology transferences that continually change the lives of people in modern societies in the era of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR). A call for papers was extended to academics to address these emergent areas and a platform was provided where ideas could be exchanged. It is from these discussions that the ICICIS 2019 volume has been created.

This volume contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference on the Internet, Cyber Security and Information Systems (ICICIS) held on October 31st- November 1, 2019 in Johannesburg, South Africa. There were 42 submissions that considered distinct themes around business information security and digital transformation in 4IR.  Each submission was reviewed by at least 2 blind reviewers through a Doubled-Blind review process. Reviewers were experts in the field, and were supported by program committee members. The committee decided to accept 34 papers from these submissions. The ICICIS, 2019 program also includes 3 invited talks by renown experts in the field, while also bringing together national and international researchers and practitioners. This year’s theme considers how society has been transformed by emerging new trends in information technology, cybersecurity, cloud computing, machine learning, new developments in algorithms, technology use in education, as well as in technology in health care in the era of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR).

ICICIS 2019, volume reports on new methodological and theoretical insights regarding 4IR in the disciplines of information systems, information technology as well as computer sciences with critical cases from Africa. The focus on Africa is deliberate. Since Africa has slowly and steadily been predisposed to 4IR initiatives, the continent also has been witness to a shortage of tangible and visible planning on how 4IR will change the lives of citizens from predominantly low-income countries beset by high youth unemployment, poverty that characterize struggling economies.


While there have been contributions explicating the nature of 4IR from diverse theoretical and methodological approaches, there are exemplar cross-disciplinary papers that bring together some diverse ideas, models, theories, as well as propositions for new strategies, policies that impact on 4IR. ICICIS 2019 seeks to showcases these ideas while aiming to begin contributing to the discourse that harnesses  notions from education, information sciences, information technology, digital marketing, computer science as well as health informatics to ensure Africa is not left behind. The following section provides an overview of these contributions.

Session 1: Cybersecurity

The pervasiveness of bureaucracy and workload has been noted as a concern to cybersecurity with pressure from industry as well as other stakeholder to help reshape curriculum at higher education institutions (Mogoane & Kabanda, 2019). Cybersecurity skill sets have been noted as lacking and when top management foster the development of these skill sets, and by helping address cybersecurity culture in culturally diverse workforces’ cybersecurity threats are minimized (Gundu, Maronga & Boucher, 2019). Indeed, the Internet is not a secure place particularly in academic institutions and cybersecurity awareness (CSA) campaigns are necessary. There is however a lack among students to engage in CSA initiatives (Potgieter,2019). Modiba, Ojo & Ncube, (2019) propose an ontology model for CSA in order to enable users to take responsibility for their own safety online.  Sikhitha & van Den Bergh, (2019) contend that the information security awareness campaigns are a “people problem” and therefore it is important to determine what should be included in those awareness campaigns.

Session 2: E-Health and Technology Enhanced Healthcare

In the advent of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR), the use of technology such as Telemedicine in health systems by South African companies can be seen as a way to counteract challenges facing public health (Adeyelure & Kalema, 2019). Cilliers & Posiliti (2019), investigate the level of basic e-health literacy skills in order to be able to use technology in health systems efficiently, and conclude that South Africans have limited skills that enable them to seek health information independently. The use of technology in healthcare in South Africa is contrasted with that in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), where the healthcare system is hampered by many challenges. Imaja & Ndayizigamiye (2019), consider DRC’s healthcare challenge and propose the use of Social Media as a platform to inform the public regarding the country’s national health agenda.  In addition to Social Media, the use of Cloud technology has been proposed. Saiod and Van Greunen (2019) endorse the promises Cloud Integration (CI) has for outsourcing eHealth, where health data collected is merged in the Cloud. The issue of privacy and trust in using these systems is raised by Ogundele and Cilliers, (2019) who point out the need for users of technology related to healthcare, educate themselves about what data is collected and how it will be used by third parties.

Session 3: Algorithms and Intelligent systems

Data security is a major concern and in order to protect data, Agbedemnab, Baagyere & Daabo, (2019) propose a three-layered text encryption and decryption scheme capable of encrypting and decrypting using Genetic Algorithm. The use of Algorithms in intelligent systems has development and cost implications which Rice, Anderson & Nkgau (2019) have addressed. They consider an Intelligent Tutoring System’s Artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities for customizing education material to students. Achmat & Brown (2019) have reviewed the role of AI in business innovation through a systematic literature review and postulate that understanding affordance of AI such as machine learning, deep learning, natural language processing and neural networks should be clear in order to make informed strategic decisions. Finally , Masha, Adeyelure & Jokonya, (2019) address the adoption of business intelligence in South Africa and proposes to develop an adaptation  model that makes use of three constructs.

Session 4: Information Technology in Society

The effects of risk and institution-based trust on the use of technology such as mobile banking apps among South African retail bank customers has been examined by Thusi & Maduku (2019). They contend with other studies that risk has a significant negative influence on use behavior.  Chinyamurindi, Cilliers & Solani (2019) present a study on the role of habit, perceived ease of use and social media capital affinity on attitudes towards social network advertising amongst students at rural campus, while Museba (2019) looks at predictive models and how these learn over time, adapt to changes in the underlying distribution of the data in order to optimize query handling. Finally, in this session, Oosterwyk, Brown & Geeling (2019) looks at a plethora of guidelines published in Information Systems (IS) journals regarding how literature reviews are to be conducted and attempts to make sense of these guidelines by synthesising the guidelines into a coherent whole.

Session 5: Technology Use in Education

In this session Toperesu, Van Belle & Turpin (2019) examine the positive and negative impacts smartphone use has on a student’s learning experience and whether this leads to an overall satisfaction with mobile learning. While on one hand this study looks at technology use by students/learners, on the other hand Mabhele & Van Belle (2019) considers decision making which serves as an antecedent to the adoption of learning technologies. Gopane’s (2019) study is also focused at higher education and looks at a conceptual assessment of blockchain technology applications to universities. Also in the context of higher education, Raseonyana, Anderson & Nkgau (2019) discuss their attempt to develop an algorithm that produce timetable solutions that meet various objectives of higher education institutions as well as theoretical objectives.

Session 6: Technology Use in Industry and Business Processes

In this session, Moyo, Scholtz & Alhassan (2019) address the need for third-party logistics (3PL) companies to maximize the capabilities of data to make well- informed decisions by developing a prescriptive, theoretical model for data-driven decision-making (DDDM) that leverages data analytics. In the manufacturing context,  Alhassan & Scholtz (2019) contend that  technology should not only be perceived as a driving factor, but only as a tool that supports the achievement of Sustainable Manufacturing Practice (SMP). They present empirical justification for South African manufacturing stakeholders leveraging on advancement in AI and smart production systems to drive SMP through reduced waste and optimization. Van Belle, Bonne, Cocquyt & Garbutt (2019) cast their eyes further out of South Africa and consider whether overseas companies are already making use of micro job outsourcing, the platforms being used for this, as well as the kinds/types jobs are being outsourced. Finally, Magoro & Phahlane (2019) presents some insightful discussion regarding post-adoption behaviors that staff can have for technology use in human resource management (HRM) and how South African Municipalities intending to adopt e-HRM will be able to address implementation challenges.

Session 7: Privacy and Information Security 

Mofokeng (2019) addresses privacy and security of devices in the advent of 4IR. Pertinent issues raised include concerns that security, privacy and trust are seen to moderate customer satisfaction, which leads to loyalty towards using technology driven websites. Maguraushe, Da Veiga & Martins’s (2019) main proposition regarding security and privacy is that these are driven be an inadequate information privacy culture and propose to identify key components of a student personal information privacy culture (SPIPC) that can serve as a conceptual framework for universities’ security and privacy initiatives. Katurura & Cilliers (2019) raise awareness regarding privacy and security implications for wearable devices with clear indication that these devices allow users to monitor their health and wellbeing in real time. Concerns are raised in context to Protection of Personal Information Act (POPIA). Gundu &  Maronga (2019) address concerns regarding security and privacy challenges associated with Internet of Things (IoT) deployments in smart farming, while Salih & Njenga (2019) delineates the understanding of big data, technology and business decision- making, and the need to take cognizance of distinct  security implication of big data use in small business as opposed to big  business.

Session 8: Cloud Computing 

This last session looked at Cloud computing and decisions around Cloud technologies.  Davids & Van Belle (2019) considers how the business strategy factors for South African organizations either support or impede moving business capabilities to a Cloud Computing (CC) environment, while Twala &  Kekwaletswe (2019) conceptualise a strategic cloud computing framework for South African information technology professions. Rich insights are provided  in the discourse, where the Cloud in 4IR can be used to leverage and offer a flexible resource that is scalable to the needs of an organization. Finally and importantly, Ayong & Rennie Naidoo (2019) deliberates the adoption of cloud computing among SMEs in developing countries. Importantly, they advocate for the development of a conceptual model to assess the critical factors that influences South African SMEs to adopt cloud services.




ICICIS 2019 extends its appreciation to the following members of the program commitee. 


Patrick    Ndayizigamiye , University of Johannesburg

Kelvin    Bwalya,   University of Johannesburg

Irwin    Brown , University of Cape Town   







Kennedy Njenga is an Associate Professor at the University of Johannesburg, South Africa and holds a PhD in Information Systems from University of Cape Town, South Africa. Prof Njenga has forged research programs in information systems security, cybersecurity as well as behavior of practitioners concerning privacy and governance of information technology. He is an active working group member of the international federation for information processing (IFIP), working group 8.11/11.13 ‘information systems security research’. He has published in leading global and regional Information Systems journals and conferences such as the European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS), African Journal of information systems (AJIS), Pacific Asia conference on Information systems, (PACIS), amongst others. He has also served as an Associate editor in leading journals such Behavior & Information Technology as well as in leading conferences such as the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) over the years. Prof Njenga is a National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF) rated researcher.

Kennedy Njenga
October 18, 2019