ICMAR NAV 2023:Papers with Abstracts

Abstract. Growth in diversity of innovation in the maritime and shipping industry, and the emergence of autonomous ship technologies is attracting discussion on Maritime Autonomous Surface Ship (MASS) operations in the academia, industry, and regulatory bodies. With predictions of both seafarers and non-seafarers to be involved in the critical operations of autonomous vessels, researchers are actively investigating the new skills and competencies that may be required by future MASS operators. Recent research conducted by the authors of this paper involved a qualitative study comprising in-depth interviews of stakeholders including seafarers, maritime regulators, maritime education and training providers, and other maritime experts. The research identified key technical and non-technical skills, and the need to include the identified skills and competencies in a framework. In this paper, the authors build on their past and present research and the first step towards building and implementing the framework by identifying the challenges of doing so in the context of maritime education and training. The challenges are drawn from a review of literature and a study of available skills and competency frameworks built for other industries’ workforces. The challenges identified, if addressed, will be useful in building a regulated and regimented structure for the training of MASS operators and meet the expectations of the maritime stakeholders.
Abstract. Recent qualitative research by the authors of this paper revealed a common understanding that future operators of autonomous ships are expected to possess a traditional seafaring licence (deck or engine) as a prerequisite for obtaining a licence to operate the future smart ships. Since the standards of competence for a traditional seafaring licence are dictated by the Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping (STCW 95) Convention, this paper sets out to investigate if the Convention, in its current form, can serve as a skill and competency-based framework for Maritime Autonomous Surface Ship (MASS) operations. The theoretical and analytical research presented in this paper is based on the analogy drawn between the elements of the STCW with the elements of existing skills and competency frameworks in other industries influenced by increasing automation. The findings of this research paper set out to answer the future dilemma between the need to revise an existing, global standards (STCW 95), the approval of which may find a quick consensus among existing members of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) versus reinventing and building new standards which may become redundant due to possibly delayed regulatory bureaucracy. The recommendations, based on the findings of the analysis, provide a pathway for the STCW Code to continue being relevant with an evolving skills and competency framework due to changing technologies and innovation.
Abstract. Digitalisation and autonomy, as the main drivers of the fourth industrial revolution, are transforming all industries, including the maritime industry. As the Industry 4.0 technologies such as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud Computing, and Simulation getting mature they are transforming industries in an unprecedented way (Gilchrist, 2016; Horvat, Kroll, & Jäger, 2019; Shahbakhsh, Emad, & Cahoon, 2021; Ustundag & Cevikcan, 2017). These technologies in the context of the maritime industry have the potential to promote sustainability, enhance innovation, support education, increase efficiency, and reduce the cost of maritime operations (Emad, Khabir, & Shahbakhsh, 2020; Emad & Shahbakhsh, 2022). However, the major challenge the industry is facing is the human element (Emad, 2020a). The pace of technology progression is not the same as human adaptation in embracing these technologies where they are expected to become professional and knowledgeable users (Emad, 2020b; Emad & Ghosh, 2023). In shipping, the emergence of the autonomous ship as the outcome of Industry 4.0 implementation is influencing many aspects of the maritime industry, including its workforce (Emad, Enshaei, & Ghosh, 2021). While most maritime stakeholders are considering utilising Industry 4.0 technologies, the human element and its adaptation falls behind this revolutionary trend (Emad, 2021). As one of the most critical stakeholders, maritime operators must be upskilled and reskilled through advanced training programs to allow them to operate the advanced technologies. This is necessary for them to be able to perform the new roles and responsibilities resulting from the newly developed workplaces onboard ship and onshore. To have a better understanding of the current trend in the maritime industry and what needs to be done we performed an in-depth systematic literature review. Our research shows that to train the future workforce, among all technologies, simulation plays a distinct role. The simulation technology as a powerful tool is not new to the industry. The earlier version of the technology was introduced by Industry 2.0 and advanced in Industry 3.0 (Gunal, 2019). However, Industry 4.0 is revolutionizing this technology and elevating its capability under Virtualisation and digital twin technology (Liljaniemi & Paavilainen, 2020; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Díaz-Gutiérrez, Leo, & Núñez- Rivas, 2019; Sánchez-Sotano, Cerezo-Narváez, Abad-Fraga, Pastor-Fernández, & Salguero-Gómez, 2020). Industry 4.0 allow the simulation to utilise other advanced technologies, such as cloud computing, mixed reality (MR), and augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) to increase the realism of training programs and the ability to resemble real-life scenarios (Ferreira, Armellini, & De Santa-Eulalia, 2020; Rodič, 2017; Zarzuelo, Soeane, & Bermúdez, 2020). At the same time, the evolving technology-rich maritime workplaces that utilise the same technologies are providing a virtual workspace that can be perfectly simulated (Kim, Sharma, Bustgaard et al., 2021; Kumar, Arekar, & Jain; Liu, Lan, Cui et al., 2020; Sellberg, 2017). This opportunity makes the simulation/simulator the most authentic tool to train the future workforce.
Abstract. With a rapidly evolving shipping industry, and the prospect of autonomous vessels on the horizon, there is a critical need for a workforce equipped with updated skills. However, research indicates that current Maritime Education and Training (MET) falls short in meeting the dynamically evolving requirements of modern and future ship operations. Despite the existence of an international Convention dedicated to MET, marine accidents continue to occur, necessitating a comprehensive examination of the changing landscape of maritime education. MET is currently undergoing a transition to cope with and cater to future shipping requirements. Furthermore, the shipping industry has been known to be reactive and regulation has traditionally been backward looking, legislating for improvements after major disasters. However, the technological changes in Industry 4.0 are rapid and require proactiveness to deal with them. Following the completion of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) regulatory scoping exercise, the MASS Code is currently under development. Against this background, this paper is timely; it draws upon ethnographic research on the MET process, and advocates for a holistic exploration of evolving MET through the lens of Activity System (AS) analysis. AS provides a theoretical framework to envisage, and comprehensively understand the interconnected components of the maritime higher education AS. This paves the way for a more effective and responsive approach to training the maritime workforce to overcome the challenges posed by Industry 4.0.
Abstract. The emergence of autonomous vessels presents opportunities and challenges for the maritime industry. Regulations relating to crewing or manning, safety equipment, watchkeeping, etc., normally applicable for crewed vessels, do not apply to Autonomous Surface Vessels (ASVs) which operate without onboard crew and are controlled, supervised or monitored by software or remote operator. Due to their nature, ASVs should have new standards developed to address risks relating to lack of onboard crew. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is responsible for making rules that apply to all oceangoing vessels, including ASVs, and are working through those updates (International Maritime Organization, 2021). The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) has provided an interim framework of exemptions and guidance notices, and a dedicated support team to work with industry in navigating the uncertainty in application of extant principles, rules, and standards to ASVs. The Trusted Autonomous Systems (TAS) Defence Cooperative Research Center has developed a suite of tools to guide builders, owners and operators in the design, build and certification of ASVs; and advocacy groups such as the Australian Association for Uncrewed Systems (AAUS) are working to provide industry recommendations and “promote a professional, safe and commercially viable uncrewed systems industry” (Australian Association for Uncrewed Systems, 2023). This paper discusses the regulatory challenges experienced in Gibbs & Cox Australia’s new build Environmentally Powered, Modular Autonomous Platform System (EMAPS) project and the project experience navigating the regulatory misalignments and published guidance documents. The solutions (exemptions and equivalencies) are straightforward but rely on best practices rather than explicit requirements where regulations are misaligned.
Abstract. Autonomous ships during any transition from conventional vessels may embrace either full or partial autonomy. At present, it is unclear how routine maintenance or breakdown, performed currently at sea, and periodic maintenance and survey, currently undertaken in port, will be scheduled. Along with these considerations matters of safety, security, reliability, availability, and the ability to remotely diagnose potential and actual failure situations will also influence the business case for autonomous ship procurement. While the initial cost of acquiring an autonomous ship is of significance in decision making, this paper principally focusses on various other aspects of the business case. Our research has shown the importance of maintenance in developing the business case for both coastal and deep-sea shipping. Indeed, maintenance and the availability of the ship will be the determining factors in whether autonomous unmanned operations will yield a profitable business case which is attractive to ship owners. Resilience during operation is a further factor that affects profitability, and this is analysed in the context of reliability and security. This paper addresses through discussion, and the results of research, into the factors influencing the business case relating to the acquisition of autonomous ships for coastal and deep-sea ships and further presents recommendations to consider when building a business case for autonomous ships.
Abstract. Industrial Revolution 4.0 is changing the interaction between humans and intelligence technology that carries systemic implications to distinctive elements of our social life. The paper discusses the implications of societal dimensions of expanding maritime autonomy by focusing on how the human mindset at social and individual levels allows the opportunity for change. In this paper, we introduce the theoretical framework of Social Mindset Restructuring, hereafter referred to as (SMR), as a critical requirement for understanding the societal dimension of implementation of maritime autonomy in the near future. This study is part of a larger research project examining the human element as a core in developing national maritime identity, in which collective mindset restructuring is essential. The SMR provides an effective tool to study how humans will interact with intelligent machines and systems and how society at the individual and collective level understands, embraces, takes part, and evolves with the change. The authors argue that MASS and maritime autonomy as part of Industry 4.0 is more than a mere technological development but a social evolution as it completely redefines the work and how human interact with technology. The successful implementation of maritime autonomy, as part of Industry 4.0, requires the restructuring of not only the maritime community but the society at large by adapting the social mindset the role of technology in the industry and how humans interact with smart machines. We develop the SMR as a theory within the socio-cultural and cultural- historical theoretical lens such as Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). SMR suggests that people are required to be enculturated through both formal and informal education to have the opportunity to be exposed to and experience relevant activities related to Maritime 4.0 and MASS. The careful design of infrastructure and social activities to provide opportunities for public exposure, involvement, and experience of people with maritime domain will lead to development of related social consciousness and mindset. At the individual level conscious people develop a maritime identity which is crucial in their understanding and involvement with the implementation of the evolving technological advancement in Maritime Autonomy.
Abstract. The rapid development and testing of autonomous navigation technologies in the maritime industry requires standardised evaluation methods to ensure safe and efficient operations. This paper highlights examples of class approvals granted to autonomous technologies, underscoring the industry's progress in adopting these systems and introduces the AMC Test, a comprehensive assessment framework for Maritime Autonomous Navigation Systems (ANS). The paper argues for the need for an in-depth standardised test to evaluate compliance with the International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea (ColRegs). The proposed AMC Test consists of 80 simulator scenarios categorised into Power Driven Vessel (PDV) Open Sea, Restricted Visibility, Coastal, and Complex Navigation sections. The testbed, built upon the Frazer Nash ColRegs framework, assesses the ANS system's understanding of the situation, adherence to ColRegs, consideration of the impact on other vessels, and anticipation of their actions. Assumptions based on relevant research support the realistic scenarios created during the test. By providing a comprehensive evaluation framework, the AMC Test enables stakeholders to assess the performance and safety of ANS systems in accordance with established regulations and industry accepted practice.
Abstract. The emerging trend of autonomous shipping has demanded the automation of many onboard systems and sub-systems to minimize human involvement in decision-making. Given the time- varying nature of the sea, the respective knowledge of ship response possesses a variety of applications in real-time operations and guidance, where predicting responses a few seconds ahead plays a crucial role in dynamic control. Within current literature, many long-run studies lack evaluation of the dynamics of ship response time-series in a transitory condition between sea states. To address this deficit, the present study proposes an innovative algorithm to automatically detect the substantial changes in the time series regime for ship response data and adjust the observation window for prediction accordingly. For prediction purposes, a well-known classic nonlinear regressor, Seasonal Auto-Regressive Integrating Moving Average (SARIMA) has been employed in an adaptive sense. Despite this concept being primarily developed for advancing ship maneuvering, experimental and simulation data of a moored semi-submersible vessel has been utilized, given the dynamics' simplicity. The results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed filter in minimizing uncertainty in ship response prediction according to the prevailing sea conditions. Although the proposed algorithm shortens the prediction length in transitory signals, it essentially improves the prediction results, for the estimation models are built only on informative short-term data. The proposed workflow can not only increase the autonomy of the involved system with ship response data, but also be further used on any onboard system dealing with time-varying information.
Abstract. Although ship design has not changed substantially for a very long time the engine room machinery and their operation have evolved dramatically. For example, in the 1970s engine rooms tended to be very spacious but by the 1980s engine rooms needed to be much shorter in length. This triggered engineers to set up engine room design and machinery to be more vertical than horizontal. The same is true for the current development toward autonomous shipping. Dual-fuel engines and electric motors with batteries free up a lot of space in the engine rooms. As the engine room and its technologies are evolving, so are the engineers’ role and their jobs onboard ship. This paper reports on the initial finding of our latest ongoing research project “Investigating the future of maritime workplace and the role of marine engineers in autonomous ships” (ROME). The ROME project studies the workplace of marine engineers in future autonomous shipping and investigates the possible effect on engineers’ roles and the type of skill and competency required to perform the role.
Abstract. Uncrewed Surface Vessels (USV) have been gaining increasing attention from navies due to their potential to revolutionize maritime operations. USVs can be integrated into naval fleets and tasked to perform essential and dangerous missions, minimizing the requirement for humans to be physically present. In addition, USVs help enhance situational awareness, provide greater surveillance capabilities, and can operate for extended periods at sea, which are vital in modern maritime security operations. This paper reviews the current state of USV technology and its potential applications in the Australian naval fleet. A detailed review of USVs that are currently being developed for navies, the functions they are fulfilling, and the available control systems employed to operate them are discussed in this paper. As USVs become more prevalent, it is essential to address the challenges associated with their deployment. Thus, the paper includes a review of the Australian legal and regulatory frameworks required to ensure their safe and secure operation and how these regulations are being developed by stakeholder engagement. In addition, the paper discusses the challenges the Australian government would face in the process of future research and development of advanced uncrewed vessel systems.
Abstract. Over the last 5 years multi-rotor drones have taken off as completely autonomous vehicles able to patrol, photograph, and inspect large campuses and infrastructure. Drone hangars allow drones to complete the entire mission cycle autonomously. Drones paired with a hangar can be left in place to periodically patrol a perimeter or can act as a station which drones can be dispatched to carry out missions remotely. Separately, advancements in image recognition and drone flight computers make it possible for multi-rotor drones to land on moving targets. Combining these two technologies would allow drones to operate autonomously from vessels. Applications include automating hull inspections, performing logistics tasks, or creating mobile drone carriers. Drone hangars on moving platforms have yet to be implemented but are feasible with current technology.